Solar System - the actual effects of climate change
The sun -
the amazing star
January 21, 2012
article references figures and graphics that will not be available if
the link below. Also, it is the second of two articles. The first can
accessed at the link as well.
cultures the sun determined the course of events. Very early, the sun’s
importance to life on Earth has been detected. Even today “her” metal
“her” color, is a synonym for prosperity and development - gold. More
like the alchemists of the Middle Ages tried to make gold from iron, it
started the attempt to make gold, i.e. the sun from greenhouse gases
CO2. Like the alchemists of the Middle Ages, this attempt is doomed to
Part 2 shows the variable sun on long time scales. He moves out of view
climate arlamists, which have a short-looking perspective and are eager
alleged disaster reports to link them to an alleged anthropogenic
99.98% of the total amount of energy the Earth results from the sun.
vanishingly small rest comes from geothermal heat sources. CO2 is
the energy balance! The radiant energy emitted by the sun comes all out
core area (approximately 25% of the solar radius), in which the merger
place. It arises from the excess energy that arises from the fusion of
to helium, because the fusion of the hydrogen mass produced nearly 1%
helium. The emitted energy is composed mainly of photons, but also of
neutrinos; the neutrinos leave the core zone immediately, the photons
through the interaction with the plasma on average about 10 million
so-called main sequence star the sun increases her radiation every 100
years to about 1%. By thermonuclear fusion four hydrogen atoms form one
atom, which has about the mass of four hydrogen atoms (minus the small
which is converted in the merger by the Einstein formula for energy).
the number of atoms in the core is taking off slowly. A lower number
atoms can not produce enough back pressure in the solar center as the
atoms before, whereby the solar center is contracting further thereby
increasing the pressure and density until the pressure against the
the overlying layers is back in balance. The higher density and
the solar center result in faster fusion. The outer layers of the sun
increases and the Sun’s luminosity increases. The energy radiating
increases. The following illustrations and explanations provide insight
the classification and life cycle of the sun.
temperature and luminosity of the sun are constantly changing as a
phases of the sun
grew about 4.6 billion years ago in a spiral arm on the edge of our
a gas and dust cloud. The gas and dust cloud consisted of about 82%
17% helium and 1% other elements. Parts of matter itself came so close
they began to clump together by their mutual gravitational attraction.
shows the stages of development (life cycle) of the sun. Once it was
about 4.6 billion years ago with the ignition of nuclear fusion in its
the radiation pressure of the contraction of the sun, caused by
countervailed, so that an equilibrium developed, and the sun reached
of a main sequence star, in which phase it remains for about 11 billion
supernovae of a red supergiant (massive star with 10 - 50 solar masses)
edge of the galaxy, flung about 4.6 billion years ago large amounts of
elements such as silicon and iron in this cloud, thereby collapsing the
dust cloud. Under the force of gravity, she began to compress slowly
rotate by the shock waves (impulse) of the supernovae. At its center,
was compressed more and more dense, thus further increasing pressure
temperature. This meant that large amounts of energy were delivered in
of radiation. A protostar was formed.
illustrations show examples of two galactic clouds, in which current
arise. Figure 17a; left, shows the 1,500 light years (ly) distant
nebula with a diameter of 3 LJ. Figure 17b, right, the 7000 LJ distant
Nebula with a diameter of 20 LJ (NASA).
compression of the particles in the center, the electro-magn. repulsion
particles was subdued and the protons were blending with each other.
was brought into action. From the protostar a star was born - the Sun.
formation of the solar system over 99% of the matter were tied up in
The rest formed by increasingly rapid rotation a flattened disk from
rings were formed first, then protoplanets and eventually the planets
At the age
of 5.5 billion years, ie in 900 million years from today, the average
temperature on Earth’s surface exceeds the for higher organisms
of 30°C (Bounama, 2004). 1 to 2 billion years later, 100°C are reached.
three billion years, Milky Way and Andromeda (our neighboring galaxy,
larger at 2.2 million light years away) come up with a speed of more
430,000 kilometers an hour together and finally merge with each other.
result, a new elliptical galaxy will be formed. According to
sun together with their satellites might find their existence on the
the new Super Galaxie. However, it could also be shredded by the cosmic
or the planetary system can be torn apart by galactic inferno.
shows the 2.2 million light years distant Andromeda galaxy. It is like
Milky Way galaxy an extended bar, Source: NASA. Figure 20b, right,
artistic representation, the celestial spectacle in about 3 billion
becomes evident from the Earth, Source: James Gitlin / STScI (Space
crash of entire galaxies are not uncommon, but happen in space ever and
In the early universe such crashs were “on the agenda”.
If the sun
and the solar system survive this cosmic crash, the luminosity of the
have doubled in about 6.4 billion years and its size will 1.6-fold
its current value. The earth is in her heart no longer liquid and
there is no earthly magnetic field anymore, which could easily mute the
sunlight and acts as a filter for X-ray and UV radiation, the solar
Earth loses fast its meanwhile hot atmosphere.
hydrogen in the Sun’s core will be depleted in about 5 billion years.
burned-out helium-sun-center (called helium nucleus) contracts more and
up so long, until the fusion of the still abundant hydrogen around the
core into helium begins. This is known as a hydrogen-shellburning. In
the sun produces more energy, the more the center of helium contracts
further the hydrogen-fusion-shell eat through to the outside. In 6.4
years, the luminosity is already twice as high as today, and the solar
is larger by about 60% than it is today. Over the next 1.3 billion
radius and luminosity grow massively. In about 7.4 billion years, the
picture will be seen from Earth (right side of the picture):
shows the sun as a red giant in artistic presentation above the surface
Earth and left in the comparison, the contemporary view.
another 200 million years, the luminosity reaches the thousands of
value and the outer layers swell up to a hundredfold, so that in spite
larger luminosity the temperature of the sun’s surface decreases and
sunlight becomes reddish. The sun has become a red giant. All water on
will long be evaporated. The following figure shows a size comparison
size of the sun.
shows the sun today (the little yellow dot, left) compared to the Sun
as a red
giant star to the right with a diameter of 1 AU (Astronomical Unit =
Earth - Sun). The sun reaches almost to the present Earth’s orbit.
development of the sun to a red giant, the ever-growing helium core
more and more under the influence of gravity and gets denser and
Finally, the electrons form the nucleus of helium at high density, a
“degenerate Fermi gas,” similar to a fluid can not be compressed
the time being.
temperature will reach the very high value of 100 million Kelvin in the
center and even exceed (today’s solar center has about 15 million
At this temperature (and pressure) the helium fusion ignites, merging
in the solar center is in the so-called helium flash explosively
carbon. Within a few minutes energy is generated by the magnitude of an
galaxy. The energy is not moving to the outside, but is required to
degenerate center (Fermi gas). Thereby the helium center expands. The
the helium in the solar center slowly merges into further carbon and
carbon also fuses with additional helium to oxygen.
helium-and hydrogen-shellburning, the sun is shrinking due to slower
back-pressure to gravity again to about 10-fold their present value.
giant sun becomes a small white giant sun, a so-called “horizontal
star”. For a certain period of time as a horizontal branch star it even
pulsates. It is then a “RR Lyrae star” (they change their luminosity
periodic, and are named after the reference star “RR Lyrae” in the
constellation Lyra). After another 100 million years, the helium in the
is consumed and converted into carbon and oxygen. The carbon-oxygen
contracts down to Earth size, with more than half of the total solar
concentrated in this very compact hot center.
In the much
less dense gas above it forms a helium fusion shell, and above this
the hydrogen fusion shell is still burning . The outer layers of the
total inflate again strong and cool down. For a short time (about 20
years), a red giant forms again, which is even larger than before -
times larger than today’s sun and with 5,000-times the luminosity. So
reaches over the todays earth’s orbit. The loss of mass of the sun by
strong solar wind and thus the reduced force of gravity, based on the
calculations, the distance between the earth from the sun can increase
1.7 times the distance of today.
migration of the helium fusion shell to the outside the red giant sun
eventually become unstable. Over a period of 500,000 years the sun
several violent convulsions (so-called “helium flash”) large parts of
outer, only weakly gravitationally bound solar layers (they are located
relatively far away from mass core) into space and exposes its inner,
this process, she loses virtually all still unspent fuel, totaling
about 1 / 3
of its mass. The expanding cloud of gas and dust is called a “planetary
nebula”, but has nothing to do with planets. The term has its origin in
fact, that these nebulae in previous telescopic had a similar
appearance to gas
planets. In comparison to the lifespan of the solar, the planetary
exist only a short time, usually not more than some 10,000 years. In
about 1,500 planetary nebulae are known. Figure 24 shows some planetary
left, shows the Cat’s Eye Nebula (NGC 6543) in the constellation Draco,
distance of about 3,300 light-years. The middle figure shows the
planetary nebula, the Ring Nebula in the constellation Lyra (NGC 6720,
4100 light years) and the right figure the Eskimo Nebula (NGC 2392) in
constellation Gemini, at a distance of 2,900 light-years.
remaining very hot naked sun center of carbon and oxygen is called a
dwarf”. Although he is only as big as the earth, he has about half the
mass of the Sun. The particle density in a white dwarf is so high that
cubic centimeter of its mass weighs about 1 ton of weight in the
The white dwarf (artistic representation), which is remaining from the
has only the size of Earth, envelopes the Earth’s surface in a pale
merger on the remaining sun will not longer takes place. It shines
has a surface temperature of more than 100,000 ° C, which decreases
over the next
billion years slowly. Their remaining mass of approximately 50% of the
solar mass is sufficient to bind the earth to it. It is impossible,
may arise on the earth again.
excursion into the future (the scenarios were developed according to
knowledge of astrophysics and summarize the current knowledge roughly),
the present, and how the dynamic solar today and in the recent past
weather and climate on Earth on smaller time scales and how it will
For this we take a look at the sun in its interior.
shows acoustic measured fluctuations and eddies in the solar interior
middle), and measured temperature-/density-changes in the Sun (right)
SOHO. The sun is not a static entity. Her energy fluctuations and their
on the earth on small time scales are quite considerable.
only the fusion power of the sun was considered. In addition, the sun
electromagnetic energy generated off into space. While the fusion power
relatively constant over short time scales, the magnetic activity of
varies considerably, thus controlling our weather systems.
graphics are fascinating. See them, plus read this and other articles