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Education Week
Read Fine Print on Learning Apps, Experts Warn
To safeguard student data privacy, districts need to pay more attention to the service agreements for educational online applications.
By Sarah D. Sparks
March 28, 2017

From math games to study skills, the potential use of educational online applications has exploded in schools—but so has the potential for problems if school staff members don't read the fine print on the service agreements.

The industry-analyst firm Technavio predicts the education app market will continue to grow at a compound annual rate of more than 28 percent through 2020, to nearly $6 billion. A 2016 survey by the Consortium for School Networking found nearly all its members (mostly school district education-technology officials) are using or plan to use digital open educational resources in the next three years, but fewer than half have clear policies on how apps are selected and used to safeguard students' privacy and teachers' intellectual property.

"For a lot of districts, [app security] hasn't come up yet," said Steve Smith, the chief information officer for the Cambridge, Mass., public schools. "If they are not thinking about data privacy and they are being pushed to use a lot of free online resources, there is potential for a lot of student-data leaks."

The 22,000-student Green Bay district in Wisconsin became aware of the challenges in 2014, as it began to integrate tablet- and cloud-based software into classrooms. Diane Doersch, Green Bay's chief technology and information officer, said that within a few years, she found herself combing through 10 to 15 app service agreements every month—"It was taking forever; every review of a terms of service agreement was taking two hours"—only to find other apps being used informally.

Many districts have lists of approved apps for teachers or students to use, Smith said, but they often have been vetted by educators or curriculum experts for their pedagogical quality, not by technology or legal experts analyzing terms of service. Even in those districts that do vet apps holistically, it's tough to keep on top of changes and updates in approved lists of hundreds or thousands of apps.

A 2016 study led by researchers from Carnegie Mellon University compared the written privacy policies of nearly 18,000 free apps targeted to children to the actual computer code that ran the applications. It found that out of more than 9,000 apps that had a privacy policy, more than half had conflicts between what the privacy policy said the app did and what the code revealed that it actually did.

Among the most common sins were those of omission: companies that collected location or time-on-task data without disclosing that information. For example, more than 40 percent of the apps collected location information, and 17 percent shared data with other companies without saying so in their privacy policies.

"It's great to have innovative schools and teachers taking advantage of all these tools, but they have to know what they are getting into," Smith said. "A lot of free applications are free for a reason; they are not just doing it out of the goodness of their hearts, they want that data."

Jim Flanagan, the chief learning-services officer for the International Society for Technology in Education, an industry group, agreed: "Nothing is totally free. You are for sale; that's the cost of free."

'Like the Wild West'

Jason Kunze, an intellectual-property lawyer with Nixon Peabody LLP, who reviews and studies software terms of service agreements, said the educational-app field is still new enough that there isn't a lot of standardization, and there are many policies and legal precedents from the real world that don't translate well to the virtual space, such as whether a provider can create a profile about students based on their geographic location or whether a teacher retains rights to a lesson plan she developed on an app…

Read the rest of the article at Education Week


 
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